中式庭院

苏州园林

Design unit: Shi Mo Yun - Yun Chinese design firm 
设计单位:世墨易雲中式设计事务所
 
Design project location:suzhou
设计项目地点:苏州
 
Design area: 420 square meters 
设计面积:180平米
 
Gardener: Huang Zongwu
园艺设计师:黄宗吾 
 
 
Construction unit: Shi Mo Yun - Yun Chinese design firm
施工单位:世墨易雲中式设计事务所




一、 什么是“植物群落”?
  从生态学概念理解,植物群落是指在一定的生境条件下,不同种类的植物群居在一起,它并非是杂乱的堆积而是有规律地由一定植物组合而成的一个整体。并在环境相似的不同地段有规律地重复出现。
二、 庭园中如何来创建植物群落?
  在庭园种植设计中常常根据自然界植物群落的规律,将不同类型的乔木、灌木和草本植物合理配植在同一面积中组成复层结构。
三、 庭园中配植植物群落有什么好处?
  将各类植物种植成群落形式,可使原先只种一层植物改成种两层以上,充分利用了地上和地下空间,使各种自然资源得到合理的利用。同时,随着季节的变化,各种植物会呈现不同的季相变化,丰富了庭园景观,更使同等面积生态效益大大提高。
四、 庭园中配植植物群落应掌握哪些原则?
  首先应考虑适地适树,即选用当地适生的植物;同时考虑植物间生态的互补性;再则,考虑植物高低、色彩、质感、种植密度等观赏效果。
五、 怎样能做到“适地适树”?
  从大环境说应是选择适合当地能生长的植物。具体到庭园应是适合栽植地小环境的植物。根据栽植地的位置(宅前、屋后、还是角隅)、朝向(东、南、西、北)、光照(强、弱)、土壤(质地、厚度)、地下水位(高、低)等等种植合适的植物,只有环境条件适合,植物才能生长良好。
六、怎样理解植物群落的生态互补?
  以光照为例,群落上层光照强适合高大、喜阳的乔木;中层光线弱,适合耐半阴的灌木;通过上、中层阳光的过滤,下层光线更弱,只能适合强阴性的草本、地被生长,只有这样上、中、下层植物各得其所,才能和谐相处。植物生长的生态条件主要是光照、温度、水分、土壤和空气,根据不同植物不同生态适应能力进行组合,才能达到生态互补。
七、 庭园与城市绿地中建植群落有不同吗?
  有。庭园面积比城市其它绿地小得多,庭园中很难容纳一片树林,而仅能在树丛下(3~5株乔木,甚至更少1~2株乔木)来配植中木或下木,组成小型植物群落。
八、 庭园中植物群落关键是什么?
  庭园中植物群落选择的关键是上木。一般以中小型乔木为宜。落叶乔木可选白玉兰、马褂木、合欢、槭树、枣树等。在较大的庭园中可选常绿乔木,如广玉兰、桂花、杜英、罗汉松、竹子等。当然也可落叶与常绿乔木兼而有之。
九、 乔木下可选哪些中、下木?
  乔木冠大叶茂,尤其在夏季树荫能遮盖大片土地,选择耐阴的八仙花、朝鲜栀子、花叶玉簪、风铃草、银莲花等组成中、下木,不仅生长良好,而且夏末秋初还能开出白色或淡紫色的花朵,给人清凉舒适的感觉。
十、 有些乔木造成浓荫,中、下木生长不良怎么办?
  首先应找出生长不良的原因,如因乔木枝叶过密,可通过修剪抬升树冠,抽稀枝叶,可使更多阳光射入,改善中、下木生长条件。也可选择如常春藤、扶芳藤、吉祥草等耐阴性很强,匍匐性好,覆盖速度迅速的植物作地被。实在过阴的林下则可用枯枝落叶或消毒树皮等覆盖。

1. What is a "plant community"?
Understanding from the concept of ecology, the plant community means that under certain habitats, different kinds of plants live together. It is not a messy accumulation but a regular combination of certain plants. It repeats regularly in different parts of the environment.
Two. How to create a plant community in the garden?
In the garden planting design, different types of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants are rationally planted in the same area to form complex layers according to the laws of the natural plant community.
Three. What are the advantages of planting a plant community in a garden?
Planting all kinds of plants in the form of colony can make the original only one plant to be more than two layers, and make full use of the ground and underground space, so that all kinds of natural resources can be used reasonably. At the same time, with the change of season, all kinds of plants will show different seasonal changes, enriching the landscape of the gardens, and greatly improving the ecological benefits of the same area.
Four. What principles should be grasped in the garden plant community?
First of all, we should consider the suitable tree, that is to choose the local plant, and consider the complementarity of the plant ecology, and then, consider the ornamental effect of plant height, color, texture, planting density and so on.
Five, how can we make a "suitable tree"?
From the macro environment, we should choose plants suitable for local growth.  Specific to the garden should be suitable for planting small environment of plants. According to the position of cultivated land (before house, after house or corner), direction (East, South, West, North), light (strong, weak), soil (texture, thickness), water level (high, low) and so on, plant suitable plants, only the environment is suitable, plants can grow well.
Six. How to understand the ecological complementarity of the plant community?
Taking light as an example, the upper layer of light is suitable for tall and sunny trees; middle light is weak and suitable for half shade shrubs. Through the filtration of the upper and middle layers of sunlight, the lower light is weaker, only suitable for strong negative herbs and ground to be grown. Only in this way, the upper, middle and lower layers can get along with each other so that they can get along harmoniously. The ecological conditions of plant growth are mainly light, temperature, water, soil and air. According to the different ecological adaptability of different plants, the ecological complementarity can be achieved.
Seven. Is there any difference between the garden and the urban green space?
Yes。 The garden area is much smaller than that of other urban greenery. It is difficult to accommodate a forest in the garden, but only under the trees (3~5 trees or even less 1~2 trees) to be planted in the trees or trees to form a small plant community.
Eight. What is the key to the plant community in the garden?
The key to the selection of plant communities in the garden is the upper wood.  In general, it is suitable for small and medium trees. Deciduous trees include magnolia, Liriodendron, acacia, maple, jujube and so on. Evergreen trees are available in larger gardens, such as magnolia, osmanthus, Du Ying, Luo Hansong, bamboo, etc. Of course, the deciduous and evergreen trees have both.
Nine, what are the trees and middle trees under the trees?
Trees crown large leaf and lene, especially in summer shade can cover a large area of land, select the shade of the eight fairy flower, Korean gardenia, flower Ye Yuzan, wind bell grass, Anemone and other trees, not only grow well, but also early summer and early autumn can open white or lilac flowers, giving people a cool and comfortable feeling.
Ten, some trees cause shade, medium and lower wood growth bad how to do?
First of all, we should find out the causes of poor growth. For example, because of the overdensity of the trees and leaves, the tree crown can be pruned and the branches and leaves are drawn, so that more sunlight can be shot and the growth conditions of the middle and lower trees can be improved. We can also choose plants such as ivy, Yoshito, auspicious grass, which have strong negative resistance, good creeping and fast coverage. In fact, overgrown forests can be covered with litter or sterile bark.
  
















 

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